Basic Theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Books

TCM China:

Basic Theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Books

 

           

 

 

 

 

 

 

14cm¡Á20.2cm,

238 pages, 2002. 12 

ISBN

7-81010-680-5/R.645 

 

Author, Li Zhaoguo.

Published by Publishing House of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

 

Foreword I

As we are walking into the 21st century, "health for all " is still an important task for the World health organization (WHO) to accomplish in the new century. The realization of "health for all " requires mutual cooperation and concerted efforts of various medical sciences, including traditional medicine. WHO has increasingly emphasized the development of traditional medicine and has made fruitful efforts to promote its development. Currently the spectrum of diseases is changing and an increasing number of diseases are difficult to cure. The side effects of chemical drugs have become more and more evident. Furthermore, both the governments and peoples in all countries are faced with the problem of high cost of medical treatment. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the complete system of traditional medicine in the world with unique theory and excellent clinical curative effects, basically meets the need to solve such problems. Therefore, bringing TCM into full play in medical treatment and healthcare will certainly become one of the hot points  in the world medical business in the 21st century.

Various aspects of work need to be done to promote the course of the internationalization of TCM, especially the compilation of works and textbooks suitable for international readers. The impending new century has witnessed the compilation of such a series of books known as A Newly Compiled Practical English-Chinese Library of Traditional Chinese Medicine published by the Publishing House of Shanghai University of TCM, compiled by Nanjing University of TCM and translated by Shanghai University of TCM Professor Zuo Yanfu, the general compiler-in-chief of this Library, is a person who sets his mind on the international dissemination of TCM. He has compiled General Survey on TCM Abroad, a monograph on the development and state of TCM abroad. This Library is another important works written by the experts organized by him with the support of Nanjing university of TCM and Shanghai University of TCM. The compilation of this Library is done with consummate ingenuity and according to the development of TCM abroad. The compilers, based on the premise of preserving the genuineness and gist of TCM, have tried to make the contents concise, practical and easy to understand, making great efforts to introduce the abstruse ideas of TCM in a scientific and Simple way as well as expounding the prevention and treatment of diseases which are commonly encountered abroad and can be effectively treated by TCM.

This Library encompasses a systematic summarization of the teaching experience accumulated in Nanjing University of TCM and Shanghai University of TCM that run the collaborating centers of traditional medicine and the international training centers on acupuncture and moxibustion set by WHO. I am sure that the publication of this Library will further promote the development of traditional Chinese medicine abroad and enable the world to have a better understanding of traditional Chinese medicine.

 

Professor Zhu Qingsheng

vice-Minister of health Ministry of the People's Republic of China

Director of the State Administrative Bureau of TCM

December 14, 2000 Beijing

 

 

Foreword II

Before the existence of the modern medicine, human beings depended solely on herbal medicines and other therapeutic methods to treat diseases and preserve health. Such a practice gave rise to the establishment of various kinds of traditional medicine with unique theory and practice, such as traditional Chinese medicine, Indian medicine and Arabian medicine, etc. Among these traditional systems of medicine, traditional Chinese medicine is a most extraordinary one based on which traditional Korean medicine and Japanese medicine have evolved.

Even in the 21st century, traditional medicine is still of great vitality. In spite of the fast development of modern medicine, traditional medicine is still disseminated far and wide. In many developing countries, most of the people in the rural areas still depend on traditional medicine and traditional medical practitioners to meet the need for primary healthcare. Even in the countries with advanced modern medicine, more and more people have begun to accept traditional medicine and other therapeutic methods, such as homeopathy, osteopathy and naturopathy , etc.

With the change of the economy, culture and living style in various regions as well as the aging in the world population, the disease spectrum has changed. And such a change has paved the way for the new application of traditional medicine. Besides, the new requirements initiated by the new diseases and the achievements and limitations of modern medicine have also created challenges for traditional medicine.

WHO sensed the importance of traditional medicine to human health early in the 1970s and have made great efforts to develop traditional medicine. At the 29th world health congress held in 1976, the item of traditional medicine was adopted in the working plan of WHO. In the following world health congresses, a series of resolutions were passed to demand the member countries to develop, utilize and study traditional medicine according to their specific conditions so as to reduce medical expenses for the realization of "health for all".

WHO has laid great stress on the scientific content, safe and effective application of traditional medicine. It has published and distributed a series of booklets on the scientific, safe and effective use of herbs and acupuncture and moxibustion. It has also made great contributions to the international standardization of traditional medical terms. The safe and effective application of traditional medical practitioners. That is why WHO has made great efforts to train them. WHO has run 27 collaborating centers in the world which have made great contributions to the training of acupuncturists and traditional medical practitioners. Nanjing University of TCM and Shanghai University of TCM run the collaborating centers with WHO. In recent years it has, with the cooperation of WHO and other countries, trained about ten thousand international students from over 90 countries.

In order to further promote the dissemination of traditional Chinese medicine in the world, A Newly Compiled Practical English-Chinese Library of Traditional Chinese Medicine, compiled by Nanjing University of TCM with professor Zuo Yanfu as the general compiler-in-chief and published by the Publishing House of Shanghai University of TCM, aims at systematic, accurate and concise expounding of traditional Chinese medical theory and introducing clinical therapeutic methods of traditional medicine according to modern medical nomenclature of diseases. Undoubtedly, this series of books will be the practical textbooks for the beginners with certain English level of Chinese to study traditional Chinese medicine. Besides, this series of books can also serve as reference books for WHO to internationally standardize the nomenclature of acupuncture and moxibustion.

The scientific, safe and effective use of traditional medicine will certainly further promote the development of traditional medicine and traditional medicine will undoubtedly make more and more contributions to human health in the 21st century.

Zhang Xiaorui

WHO Coordination Officer

December, 2000

 

Contents

Introduction

1 Yin-yang and the five elements

1.1 Yin-yang

1.1.1 The implication of yin-yang and the categorization of things according to the nature of yin-yang

1.1.1.1 The implication of yin-yang

1.1.1.2 The categorization of things according to yin and yang

1.1.2 Interaction between yin and yang

1.1.2.1 Opposition of yin and yang

1.1.2.2 Interdependence between yin and yang

1.1.2.3 Wane and wax between yin and yang

1.1.2.4 Mutual transformation between yin and yang

1.1.3 Application of the theory of yin and yang in TCM

1.1.3.1 Explanation of the histological structure of the human body

1.1.3.2 Explanation of the relationship between structure and function

1.1.3.3 Explanation of pathogenesis

1.1.3.4 Diagnosis and syndrome differentiation

1.1.3.5 Guiding clinical treatment

1.2 Wuxing (the five elements)

1.2.1 The implication of the five elements and the categorization of things according to the theory of the five elements

1.2.1.1 Implication of the five elements

1.2.1.2 Categorization of things according to the properties of the five elements

1.2.2 Interactions among the five elements

1.2.2.1 Inter-promotion and inter-restraint among the five elements

1.2.2.2 Over restraint and reverse restraint

1.2.3 Application of the theory of the five elements in TCM

1.2.3.1 Explaining the physiological functions of the five zang-organs and the relationships among them

1.2.3.2 Explaining interactions among the five zang-organs

1.2.3.3 Guiding clinical diagnosis

1.2.3.4 Guiding the treatment of disease

2 Zangxiang (viscera and their manifestations)

2.1 The five zang-organs

2.1.1 The physiological functions of the heart

2.1.1.2 The relationships between the heart and the body, the sensory organs and the orifices

Appendix: The pericardium

2.1.2 The lung

2.1.2.1 The physiological functions of the lung

2.1.2.2 The relationships between the lung and the body, the sensory organs and the orifices

2.1.3 The liver

2.1.3.1 The physiological functions of the liver

2.1.3.2 The relationships between the liver and the body, the sensory organs and the orifices

2.1.4 The spleen

2.1.4.1 The physiological functions of the spleen

2.1.4.2 The relationships between the spleen and the body, the sensory organs and the orifices

2.1.5 The kidney

2.1.5.1 The physiological functions of the kidney

2.1.5.2 The relationships between the kidney and the body, the sensory organs and the orifices

Appendix: Mingmen (life-gate)

2.2 The six fu-organs

2.2.1 the gallbladder

2.2.2 The stomach

2.2.3 The small intestine

2.2.4 The large intestine

2.2.5 The bladder

2.2.6 Sanjiao (the triple energizer)

2.2.6.1 The conception of the triple energizer

2.2..6.2 The physiological function of the triple energizer

2.3 The extraordinary fu-organs

2.3.1 The characteristics of the extraordinary fu -organs

2.3.2 The physiological functions of the extraordinary fu-organs

2.3.2.1 The brain

2.3.2.2 The uterus

2.4 The relationships among the zang-organs and the fu-organs

2.4.1 The relationships among the five zang-organs

2.4.1.1 The relationship between the heart and the lung

2.4.1.2 The relationship between the heart and the spleen

2.4.1.3 the relationship between the heart and the liver

2.4.1.4 the relationship between the heart and the kidney

2.4.1.5 The relationship between the lung and the liver

2.4.1.6 The relationship between the lung and the spleen

2.4.1.7 The relationship between the lung and the kidney

2.4.1.8 The relationship between the liver and the spleen

2.4.1.9 The relationship between the liver and the kidney

2.4.1.10 The relationship between the spleen and kidney

2.4.2 The relationships among the six fu-organs

2.4.3 The relationship between the five zang-organs and the six fu-organs

2.4.3.1 The internal and external relationship between the heart and the small intestine

2.4.3.2 The internal and external relationship between the lung and the large intestine

2.4.3.3 The internal and external relationship between the spleen and the stomach

2.4.3.4 The internal and external relationship between the liver and the gallbladder

2.4.3.5 The internal and external relationship between the kidney and the bladder

3 Qi, blood and body fluid

3.1 Qi

3.1.1 The basic concept of qi

3.1.2 The production of Qi

3.1.3 The physiological functions of Qi

3.1.3.1 Propelling function

3.1.3.2 Warming function

3.1.3.3 Protecting function

3.1.3.4 Fixating function

3.1.3.5 Qi- transforming function

3.1.4 The moving styles of qi

3.1.5 The classification of qi and its productions, distribution and functional characteristics

3.1.5.1 Yuan-qi (primordial qi)

3.1.5.2 Zong-qi (the pectoral qi)

3.1.5.3 Ying -qi (nutrient qi) and wei-qi (defensive qi)

3.2 Blood

3.2.1 The basic concept of blood

3.2.2 The production of blood

3.2.3 The physiological functions of blood

3.2.4 The circulation of blood

3.3 body fluid

3.3.1 The basic concept of body fluid

3.3.2 The production of body fluid

3.3.3 The physiological functions of body fluid

3.3.3.1 Moistening and nourishing

3.3.3.2 The transformation of blood

3.3.3.3 The transportation of the turbid qi

3.3.4 The transportation and metabolism of body fluid

Appendix: The five zang-organs transforming five kinds of liquids

3.4 The relationships among qi, blood and body fluid

3.4.1 The relationship between qi and blood

3.4.1.1 The effect of qi on blood

3.4.1.2 The effect of blood on qi

3.4.2 The relationship between qi and body fluid

3.4.2.1 The effect of qi on body fluid

3.4.2.2 The effect of body fluid on qi

3.4.3 The relationship between blood and body fluid

4 The meridians and collaterals

4.1 The content of the theory of meridians and collaterals

4.1.1 The twelve meridians

4.1.1.1 The names of the twelve meridians

4.1.1.2 The flowing and infusing order of the twelve meridians

4.1.1.3 The distribution of the twelve meridians

4.1.1.4 The external and internal relationships

4.1.2 The eight extraordinary vessels

4.1.2.1 The nomenclature

4.1.2.2  The running features of the eight extraordinary vessels

Appendix: The twelve branches of the meridians, the twelve tendons, the twelve skin divisions, the fifteen divergent collaterals, the floating collaterals and the minute collaterals

4.2 The basic functions of the meridians and collaterals

4.2.1 To connect the external with the internal as well as to connect the viscera with other organs

4.2.1.1 The relationships between the viscera, the body, the sensory organs and the orifices

4.2.1.2 The relationships between the zang-organs and fu-organs

4.2.1.3 The relationships among the meridians

4.2.2 To transport qi, blood, yin and yang to nourish the viscera and the body

Appendix: the functional characteristics of the eight extraordinary vessels

4.3 The clinical application of the theory of meridians and collaterals

4.3.1 To explain pathogenesis and pathological transmission

4.3.1.1 To explain the pathogenesis

4.3.1.2 To explain pathological transmission

4.3.2 To guide the diagnosis and treatment of disease

4.3.2.1 To guide the diagnosis of disease

4.3.2.2 To guide the treatment of disease

5 Causes of disease

5.1 The six climatic factors

5.1.1 Wind

5.1.2 Cold

5.1.3 Summer-heat

5.1.4 Dampness

5.1.5 Dryness

5.1.6 Heat (fire)

Appendix: Pestilence and five endogenous pathogenic factors

5.2 Internal impairment due to seven emotions

5.2.1 Directly impairing the internal organs

5.2.2 Disordering the activity of qi

5.2.2.1 Excessive joy relaxing the activity of qi

5.2.2.2 Excessive anger driving qi to move upwards

5.2.2.3 Excessive anxiety inhibiting qi

5.2.2.4 Excessive contemplation stagnating qi

5.2.2.5 Excessive grief exhausting qi

5.2.2.6 Excessive terror driving qi to move downwards

5.2.2.7 Excessive fear disturbing qi

5.2.3 Causing or aggravating certain diseases

5.3 Improper diet

5.3.1 Starvation and overeating

5.3.2 Unhygienic food

5.3.3 Food partiality

5.4 overwork and over-rest

5.4.1 overwork

5.4.2 Over-rest

5.5 Diseases caused by phlegm, rheum and blood stasis

5.5.1 Phlegm and rheum

5.5.1.1 The basic concept of phlegm and rheum

5.5.1.2 The formation of phlegm and rheum

5.5.1.3 The characteristics of phlegm and rheum in causing diseases

5.5.2 Blood stasis

5.5.2.1 The basic concept of blood stasis

5.5.2.2 The formation of blood stasis

5.5.2.3 The characteristics of blood stasis in causing diseases

6 Pathogenesis

6.1 Causes of disease

6.1.1 Occurrence of disease and the relationship between pathogenic factors and the healthy qi

6.1.1.1 Deficiency of healthy qi and invasion of pathogenic factors; two important aspects of the occurrence of disease

6.1.1.2 The effect of healthy qi and pathogenic factors on the occurrence of disease

6.1.2 Constitution and disease

6.1.2.1 The definition of constitution

6.1.2.2 The formation of constitution

6.1.2.3 The classification of constitution

6.1.2.4 The influence of constitution on disease

6.2 Mechanism of pathological changes

6.2.1 Predomination and decline of pathogenic factors and healthy qi

6.2.1.1 Predomination and decline of pathogenic factors and healthy qi and the changes of deficiency and excess

6.2.1.2 The relationship between the prognosis of disease and the state of pathogenic factors and healthy qi

6.2.2 Imbalance between yin and yang

6.2.2.1 Relative predomination and decline of yin and yang

6.2.2.2 Inter-consumption of yin and yang

6.2.2.3 Inter-rejection of yin and yang

6.2.2.4 Inter -transformation of yin and yang

6.2.2.5 Loss of yin and yang

6.2.3 Disorder of qi, blood and body fluid

6.2.3.1 Disorder of qi

6.2.3.2 Disorder of blood

6.2.3.3 disorder of body fluid

7 prevention and therapeutic principles

7.1 Principles of prevention

7.1.1 Theory of prevention

7.1.1.1 Importance of prevention

7.1.1.2 The theoretical basis of the principles of prevention

7.1.1.3 The guiding ideology of the principles of prevention

7.1.2 The preventive methods

7.1.2.1 Giving prevention the priority

7.1.2.2 Preventing transmission and change

7.2 Therapeutic principles

7.2.1 Concentrating treatment on the root cause

7.2.1.1 Significance

7.2.1.2 Application

7.2.2 Strengthening healthy qi and eliminating pathogenic factors

7.2.2.1 Significance

7.2.2.2 Application of strengthening healthy qi and eliminating pathogenic factors

7.2.3 regulation of yin and yang

7.2.3.1 Reducing excess

7.2.3.2 Supplementing insufficiency

7.2.4 Abidance by individuality locality ad seasons

7.2.4.1 Abidance by individuality

7.2.4.2 Abidance by locality

7.2.4.3 Abidance by seasonal variation

Postscript