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Diagnostics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Books







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Foreword ¢ñ

As we are walking into the 21st century, "health for all" is still an important task for the World Health Organization (WHO) to accomplish in the new century. The realization of "health for all" requires mutual cooperation and concerted efforts of various medical sciences, including traditional medicine. WHO has increasingly emphasized the development of traditional medicine and has made fruitful efforts to promote its development. Currently the spectrum of diseases is changing and an increasing number of diseases are difficult to cure. The side effects of chemical drugs have become more and more evident. Furthermore, both the governments and peoples in all countries are faced with the problem of high cost of medical treatment. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the complete system of traditional medicine in the world with unique theory and excellent clinical curative effects, basically meets the need to solve such problems. Therefore, bringing TCM into full play in medical treatment ad healthcare will certainly become one of the hot points in the world medical business in the 21st century.

Various aspects of work need to be done to promote the course of the internationalization of TCM, especially the compilation of works and textbooks suitable for international readers. The impending new century has witnessed the compilation of such a series of books known as A Newly Compiled Practical English-Chinese Library of Traditional Chinese Medicine Published by the Publishing House of Shanghai University of TCM and translated by Shanghai University of TCM. Professor Zuo Yanfu, the general compiler-in-chief of this Library, is a person who sets his mind on the international dissemination of TCM. He has compiled General Survey on TCM Abroad, a monograph on the development and state of TCM abroad. This Library is another important works written by the experts organized b him with the support of Nanjing University of TCM and Shanghai University of TCM. The compilation of this Library is done with consummate ingenuity and according to the development of TCM abroad. The compilers, based on the premise of preserving the genuineness and gist of TCM, have tried to make the contents concise, practical and easy to understand, making great efforts to introduce the abstruse ideas of TCM in a scientific and simple way as well as expounding the prevention and treatment of diseases which are commonly encountered abroad and can be effectively treated by TCM.

This Library encompasses a systematic summarization of the teaching experience accumulated in Nanjing University of TCM and Shanghai University of TCM that run the collaborating centers of traditional medicine and the international training centers on acupuncture and moxibustion set by WHO. Ian sure that the publication of this Library will further promote the development of traditional Chinese medicine abroad and enable the whole world to have a better understanding of traditional Chinese medicine.

Professor Zhu Qingsheng

Vice-Minister of Health Ministry of the People's Republic of China

Director of the State Administrative Bureau of TCM

December 14, 2000Beijing


Foreword ¢┛

Before the existence of the modern medicine, human beings depended solely on herbal medicines and other therapeutic methods to treat diseases and preserve health. Such a practice gave rise to the establishment of various kinds of traditional medicine with unique theory and practice, such as traditional Chinese medicine, Indian medicine and Arabian medicine, etc. Among these traditional systems of medicine, traditional Chinese medicine is a most extraordinary one based on which traditional Korean medicine and Japanese medicine have evolved.

Even in the 21st century, traditional medicine is still of great vitality. In spite of the fast development of modern medicine, traditional medicine is still disseminated far and wide. In many developing countries, most of the people in the rural areas still depend on traditional medicine and traditional medical practitioners to meet the need for primary healthcare. Even in the countries with advanced modern medicine, more and more people have begun to accept traditional medicine and other therapeutic methods, such as homeopathy, osteopathy and naturopathy, etc.

With the change of the economy, culture and living style in various regions as well as the aging in the world population, the disease spectrum has changed. And such a change has paved the way for the new application of traditional medicine. Besides, the requirements initiated by the new diseases and the achievements and limitations of modern medicine have also created challenges for traditional medicine.

Who sensed the importance of traditional medicine to human health early in the 1970s and have made great efforts to develop traditional medicine. At the 29th world health congress held in 1976, the item of traditional medicine was adopted in the working plan of WHO. In the following world health congresses, a series of resolutions  were passed to demand the member countries to develop, utilize and study traditional medicine according to their specific conditions so as to reduce medical expenses for the realization of "health for all."

WHO has laid great stress on the scientific content, safe and effective application of traditional medicine. It has published and distributed a series of booklets on the scientific, safe and effective use of herbs and acupuncture and moxibution. It has also made great contribution to the international standardization of traditional medical terms. The safe and effective application of traditional medicine has much to do with the skills of traditional medical practitioners. That is why WHO has made great efforts to train them. WHO has run 27 collaborating centers in the world which have made great contributions to the training of acupuncturists and traditional medical practitioners. Nanjing University of TCM and Shanghai University of TCM run the collaborating centers with WHO. In recent years it has, with the cooperation of WHO and other countries, trained about ten thousand international students from over 90 countries.

In other to further promote the dissemination of traditional Chinese medicine in the world, A Newly Compiled Practical English-Chinese Library of Traditional Chinese Medicine, compiled by Nanjing University of TCM with Professor Zuo Yanfu as the general compiler-in-chief and published by the Publishing House of Shanghai University of TCM, aims at systematic, accurate and concise expounding of traditional Chinese medical theory and introducing clinical therapeutic methods of traditional medicine according to modern medical nomenclature of diseases. Undoubtedly, this series of books wil be the practical textbooks for the beginners with certain English level and the international enthusiasts with certain level of Chinese to study traditional Chinese medicine. Besides, this series of books can also serve as reference books for WHO to internationally standardize the nomenclature of acupuncture and moxibustion.

The scientific, safe and effective use of traditional medicine will certainly further promote the development of traditional medicine and traditional medicine will undoubtedly make more and more contributions to human health in the 21st century.

Zhang Xiaorui

WHO Coordination Officer





1. Diagnostic methods

1.1 Inspection

1.1.1 Inspection of the whole body Inspection of spirit Inspection of complexion Inspection of postures

1.1.2 Inspection of local regions Inspection of head and hair Inspection of the five sense organs Inspection of neck Inspection of skin Inspection of infantile index finger veins Inspection of excreta

1.1.3 Inspection of tongue Methods for inspection of tongue Normal states of the tongue Inspection of the tongue body Inspection of tongue fur Comprehensive analysis if the body of the tongue and tongue fur

1.2 Listening and olfaction

1.2.1 Listening to sounds Speech Respiration Cough Hiccup and belching

1.2.2 Olfaction Smelling body odor Odor in the room

1.3 Inquiry

1.3.1 General information

1.3.2 Inquiry of chief complaint and history of present illness Inquiry of chief complaint of the history of present illness

1.3.3  Inquiry of the present symptoms Inquiry of fever and cold Inquiry of sweating Inquiry of pain Inquiry of sleep Inquiry of diet and partiality Inquiry of urination and defecation Inquiry of the head and face Inquiry of chest and abdomen Inquiry of symptoms in andropathy Inquiry of symptoms in andropathy Inquiry of symptoms in gynecology Inquiry of symptoms in pediatrics

1.3.4 Inquiry of anamnesis Inquiry of past physique Inquiry of previous illness

1.3.5 Inquiry of family history

1.4 Pulse-taking and palpation

1.4.1 Pulse-taking Regions and methods for taking pulse Normal pulse Morbid pulse

1.4.2 Palpation Methods for palpation Pressing the chest and abdomen Palpation of the four limbs Palpation of acupoints

2. Differentiation of syndrome

2.1 Syndrome differentiation with eight principles

2.1.1 External and internal differentiation of syndromes External syndrome Internal syndrome

Appendix: Half external and half internal syndrome

2.1.2 Syndrome differentiation of cold and heat Cold syndrome Heat syndrome

2.1.3 Syndrome differentiation of asthenia and sthenia Asthenia syndrome Sthenia syndrome

2.1.4 Syndrome differentiation of yin and yang Yin syndrome and yang syndrome Yin asthenia syndrome and yang asthenia syndrome Yin depletion syndrome and yang depletion syndrome

2.1.5 Relationship among the eight principal syndromes Relationship between two principles in a pair Relationship between different pairs of principles

2.2 Syndrome differentiation of qi, blood and body fluid

2.2.1 Syndrome differentiation of qi disorders Qi asthenia syndrome Qi sinking syndrome Qi stagnation syndrome Qi reversion syndrome

2.2.2 Syndrome differentiation of blood disease Blood asthenia syndrome Blood stasis syndrome Blood cold syndrome Blood heat syndrome

2.2.3 Syndrome differentiation of simultaneous disorder of qi and blood Asthenia of both qi and blood Qi asthenia and hemorrhagia syndrome Depletion of qi with bleeding syndrome Qi asthenia and blood stasis syndrome Qi stagnation and blood stasis syndrome

2.2.4 Syndrome differentiation of fluid disorder Insufficiency of body fluid Phlegm syndrome Fluid-retention syndrome Edema

2.3 Syndrome differentiation of viscera

2.3.1 Syndrome differentiation of heart disease Asthenia of heart qi Heart yang asthenia syndrome Sudden loss of heart yang syndrome Heart blood asthenia syndrome Heart yin asthenia syndrome Heart vessels obstruction syndrome Exuberance of heart fire syndrome Mind confusion by phlegm Disturbance of the heart by phlegmatic fire

2.3.2 Syndrome differentiation of lung disease Pulmonary qi asthenia syndrome Lung yin asthenia syndrome Syndrome of wind cold encumbering lung Wind heat invading lung syndrome Syndrome of dryness attacking lung Syndrome of accumulation of pathogenic heat in lung Syndrome of phlegmatic dampness retention in lung Syndrome of confliction of wind and fluid in lung

2.3.3 Syndrome differentiation of spleen disease Syndrome of asthenia of splenic qi Syndrome of asthenia of splenic yang Syndrome of sinking of splenic qi Syndrome of failure of the spleen to govern blood Syndrome of cold and dampness encumbering the spleen Syndrome of damp heat encumbering the spleen

2.3.4 Syndrome Differentiation of liver disease Asthenia syndrome of liver blood Syndrome of liver yin asthenia Syndrome of liver qi stagnation Syndrome of liver fire hyperactivity Syndrome of liver yang hyperactivity Syndrome of endogenous liver wind Syndrome of cold stagnation in the liver meridian

2.3.5  Syndrome differentiation of kidney disease Syndrome of kidney yang asthenia Syndrome of edema due to kidney asthenia Syndrome of kidney yin asthenia Syndrome of kidney qi weakness Syndrome of kidney qi weakness Syndrome of kidney failing to receive qi

2.3.6 Syndrome differentiation of stomach disease Syndrome of stomach cold Syndrome of stomach heat Syndrome of food retention in the stomach Syndrome of asthenic stomach yin

2.3.7 Syndrome differentiation of gallbladder disease

Syndrome of gallbladder stagnation and phlegm disturbance

2.3.8 Syndrome differentiation of small intestinal disease

Sthenic heat syndrome f small intestinal disease

2.3.9 Syndrome differentiation of large intestinal disease Syndrome of large intestinal fluid consumption Syndrome of large intestinal damp-heat

2.3.10 Syndrome differentiation of bladder disease Syndrome of  damp heat in the bladder

2.3.11 Syndrome differentiation of accompanying diseases of viscera Asthenia syndrome of heart and lung qi Asthenia syndrome of heart and spleen Asthenia syndrome of heart and kidney yang Syndrome of disharmony between the heart and kidney Syndrome of lung and spleen qi asthenia Syndrome of spleen and kidney yang asthenia Syndrome of kidney and liver yin asthenia Syndrome of liver fire invading lung Syndrome of imbalance between liver and spleen Syndrome of incoordination between liver and stomach Syndrome of damp-heat in liver and gallbladder

2.4 Other syndrome differentiation methods

2.4.1 Introduction to six-meridians syndrome differentiation Taiyang syndrome Yangming syndrome Shaoyang syndrome Taiyin syndrome Shaoyin syndrome Jueyin syndrome

2.4.2 Introduction to syndrome differentiation of defensive qi, qi, nutrient qi and blood. Defensive phase syndrome Qi phase syndrome Nutrient phase syndrome Blood phase syndrome



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