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Overview of the Development of

Zhongjing School in Hunan Province

¡ª¡ªAcademic Report on the First Zhongfang International TCM Forum

By Professor Hu Fanglin & Professor Liu Xianju

(Hunan University of Chinese medicine, Changsha City, Hunan Province)


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Zhang Ji, also called Zhang Zhongjing, a famous medical scientist in the Eastern-han dynasty (A.D. 25 to 220), wrote Treatise on Exogenous Febrile Diseases and Miscellaneous Diseases with 16 rolls. The later generations respectively compiled it into Treatise on Febrile Diseases and Formula Discussion On Synopsis of Golden Chamber. These two important Chinese medical classics were known as ¡°the Father of Medical Formulary¡±.  Zhang Zhongjing was also regarded as the Medical Sage of China. Since Zhang Zhongjing was the governor of Changsha city, he is also called ¡°Zhang Changsha¡±; while his medical formulary also known as ¡°Changsha Formulary¡±. In the process of later generations¡¯ research and development on Zhongjing theory, different academic schools were formed. Even on this basis, local Zhongjing¡¯s schools with unique characters appeared. There were many scholars studying on Treatise on Febrile Diseases and Synopsis of Golden Chamber. During the period of Republic of China (1912-1949), four kinds of editions of Zhongjing¡¯s books were found. The ancient Hunan edition of Treatise on Exogenous Febrile Diseases and Miscellaneous Diseases found by Liu Kunxiang in Jiangxi Province aroused great influence on modern studies on typhoid fever. For a long time, Zhongjing School of thought in Hunan province has not been valued in the field of medicine, so I make a brief introduction about it as follows. 1. Textual research on publication of Hunan medical scientists on Zhongjing theory.

Mr. Hao Shi verified that in the 7th year of Jian An period (A.D. 202), after Liu Biao attacked and occupied the Changsha city, Zhang Zhongjing was appointed as the governor of Changsha city, and left the beautiful story of ¡°medical practice in the lobby of office¡±. In 18th year of Jian An period (A.D. 213), Zhang Zhongjing wrote the classic of Treatise on Exogenous Febrile Diseases and Miscellaneous Diseases. Just scattered parts of this book were found, the famous Dr. Sun Simiao expressed regrets in his book Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergencies: ¡°All medial physicians in south China failed to teach Zhongjing¡¯s prescriptions.¡± It is a pity. The concept of Medical Masters in South China made people to concern over it. The so-called ¡°south China¡±, where is it? Referring to Zhang Zhongjing as Zhang Changsha, we think that the so-called ¡°south China¡± must include the current Hunan province. Therefore, we can say that Zhongjing¡¯s theory originated and became mature in Hunan province. According to the record of the Theory of Hunan Medical Origin, since the Song dynasty (A.D. 960-11276), there were 35 kinds of Hunan physicians¡¯ research works on Treatise on Febrile Diseases and Synopsis of Golden Chamber, but most of them were lost.

2. Modern education pays attention to pass on knowledge of Treatise on Exogenous Febrile Diseases and Miscellaneous Diseases and Synopsis of Golden Chamber, and develop and expand Zhongjing theory.

Since the modern times, western medicine widely spread in our country, while TCM and its education faced challenges of western medicine. Many TCM scholars absorbed knowledge of western medicine and education science so as to adapt to the new historical condition. In order to inherit and rescue the medical science of our country, many people established a few TCM schools. In 1896, Zhu Yungu in Changsha City took the lead in setting up Le Quan Hospital; in 1923, Zheng Xiucheng established Min Dao Medical School. The most successful one was Hunan National TCM Technical College, which was founded in 1934, while suspended in 1941. It was the predecessor of Hunan University of Chinese Medicine. The goals of school were to sort out theories of TCM with scientific methods as well as to cultivate TCM specialists.

3. Contributions to the protection and development of Theory of Zhang Zhongjing in the special period in Hunan province during modern times

In the early Republic of China (1912-1949), Liu Shizhen, a famous physician in Hunan province, in a valley during his travel in Jiangxi province met an old man, whose name is Zhang. This old man gave him a treasured private copy of Treatise on Exogenous Febrile Diseases and Miscellaneous Diseases. His offspring, Lou Zhongmai proofread it; the book was published lithographically in Changsha city in 1932. The book was transcribed and published by Mr. He Jian. It was Changsha Ancient Copy, also called Xiang Ancient Copy. He Jian (1887-1956), also called Yun Quan, Yun Jiao or Rong Yuan, a man from Liling district of Changsha area, as the chairman of Hunan Province Government during 1927 to 1937. This person was in political malfeasance, but he liked traditional cultures. He also was interested in TCM and he advocated reading classics. In 1931, he donated 10 thousands taels of silver, and commanded Wan Qianqing to prepare and set up the Hunan TCM hospital. He chose a house as its site at No. 56, Shahe street, Changsha city. At that time, there were institutes and branch institutes in that hospital. When Hunan TCM School was founded, he donated more than 1000 taels of silver. After its foundation, he always offered economic assistance, visited the school, made speeches, and gave admonitory advices to his subordinate people. In 1934, Hunan TCM School was approved to participate in military training in Nan Yue Mountain as other schools. Under the historical condition at that time, He Jian¡¯s deed for the inheritance of TCM and promotion of Zhongjing Theory were relatively rare in China. Therefore, research and inheritance of Zhongjing Theory in Hunan province became common practices.

Hunan physicians annotated Treatise on Exogenous Febrile Diseases and Miscellaneous Diseases and Synopsis of Golden Chamber with finely investigated textual research. They presented the opinions of pathomechanism and pathogenesis of typhoid, ways of transformation as well as treatment determination based on syndrome differentiation, and created new prescriptions and finally produced Zhongjing School with unique Hunan regional characters. Sometime ago, we have done some basic study. Even though the works were insufficient, it deserves further research to promote the prosperity of the academic schools of TCM.



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